Design and Implementation of Solar Energy Harvesting System for Self-Powere IoT Sensor Network
A wireless sensor network (WSN) typically consists of thousands to hundreds of sensor nodes of various sizes and types. These sensor nodes are capable of continuously monitoring and reporting on environmental variables. They contribute significantly to the expansion of the sensing layer in the Internet of Things (IoT) architecture. Due to the sensor node's battery-powered nature, its lifespan and energy capacity are limited.As a result, buying millions of such batteries is expensive, and they must be disposed of properly. Accordingly, due to the lack of battery power, communications error, or malfunctioning devices, the sensory data from the remote sensor node could be noisy, uncertain, or missing. It is considered a critical issue for WSN applications in the IoT environment.
This paper aims to develop an inclusive scheme for energy harvesting techniques in wireless sensor nodes for IoT applications. The developed approach is based on the energy harvesting technology that uses solar energy through a photovoltaic (PV) module. As an external power source, the PV module generates additional energy for the sensor node. This extra energy will avoid battery replacement since the energy supplied to the sensor node is not limited anymore.
The model for green IoT edge devices is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK 2019b, built on a solar harvester with particle swarm optimization - maximum power point tracking (PSO-MPPT) technique used to optimize the collected energy by the attached PV module. The temperature and solar irradiation actual values were approximated using the spline approximation technique because stability and simplicity characteristics characterize the spline approach.
The obtained results revealed that the proposed scheme increases battery lifespan by 62% compared to a conventional battery-powered sensor node. Furthermore, the key benefits of the introduced solution included lowering network repair costs and avoiding environmental damage caused by non-rechargeable batteries.