Systematization of Knowledge of Used Cryptographic Functions In Block Chain
Blockchain has been proposed to be a disruptive technology with possible for applications in various industries. The fundamentals of blockchain are cryptography and cryptographic ideas that deliver reliable and secure decentralized solutions. Although many recent papers study the use-cases of blockchain in different industrial areas, such as finance, health care, legal relations, IoT, information security, and consensus building systems, only few studies scrutinize the cryptographic concepts used in blockchain. To the best of our information, there is no Systematization of Knowledge (SoK) that gives a complete picture of the existing cryptographic concepts which have been deployed or have the potential to be deployed in blockchain. This paper concerns the analysis and systematize all cryptographic concepts which are already used in blockchain. However, there is a clear lack of a systematic framework with which different systems can be analysed and compared against each other. Such a framework can be used to assess blockchains’ viability as another distributed data processing platform, while helping developers to identify bottlenecks and accordingly improve their platforms Finally, we conclude the survey by presenting a list of possible directions for future research. Also, we give a list of cryptographic concepts which have not yet been applied but have big potentials to improve the current blockchain solutions. We also include possible instantiations of these cryptographic concepts in the blockchain domain.